In the early eighties, people around the world realized that the way they were living was unsustainable. Climate change that caused floods in some areas and drought in others, new diseases that had no cures and conflict over limited natural resources such as water and land for irrigation and livestock were evidence that what some people did in one part of the world adversely affected life in another part of the world. The Brundtland report was published in 1987 as a response to this realization that there was need for a common strategy. It was aptly named, 'Our Common Future'(Brundtland 1987). In it, Sustainable Development was defined in this statement.
'Humanity has the ability to make development sustainable to ensure that it meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The concept of sustainable development does imply limits- not absolute limits but limitations imposed by the present state of technology and social organization on environmental resources and by the ability of the biosphere to absorb the effects of human activities'(Brundtland 1987, 16).
An African Christian approach to understanding God does not question God as much as it seeks to understand him. As one pastor put it, sometimes theologians give answers to questions that we have not asked. We must find a way of articulating our understanding of God's design for sustainable life since we believe that without God's help, humanity does not have the ability to make development sustainable. Only God, who stands outside and above human weakness, can be a neutral voice. The solution presented by the Brundtland report that "...in the final analysis, sustainable development must rest on political will'(Brundtland 1987, 17) shows that the nations of the world are mostly interested in self preservation and without God, sustainable living is not possible. Since this is a critical issue in our time, it is important to consider biblical principles for sustainable living and development in a world where God's role has been eclipsed by secular leadership.
This paper seeks to trace God's missional work through reflection on his acts and decrees on how to live sustainably. Genesis 1-3 presents the Biblical creation story. It establishes the facts of creation, God's work, purpose, and covenant with Adam and Eve. In this section, the fall shows the reason why we are in the predicament of unsustainable living but God's missional work in redemption is also introduced. Leviticus 26 further elaborates on God's mission plan of redemption by showing clearly that the goal is to bless human beings if they will live in obedience to him and avoid the curses of disobedience. God was preparing the nation of Israel for their entry into Canaan. God speaks in creation and covenant but humans have varying responses to God's word. Matthew 13 presents the different kinds of people who hear the word and their responses. Some fail in their dominion mandate while others succeed based on their access to God's word, their understanding, and application of it. 2 Corinthians 8 and 9 explores the topic of generosity, showing both poor and rich people have capacity for generosity based on their understanding and reliance of God and his word. Generosity by all, rich or poor and is sustainable because lends itself to communal responsibility for the equitable distribution of resources but it must be embedded in a true understanding of God.
The thesis of this paper therefore is that throughout the bible, God asserts himself as the creator, owner, and sustainer of life on the universe and therefore effective strategies for sustainable life and development for creation are impossible to achieve without hearing, understanding, and obeying his word. The stewardship practice of these disciplines is rewarded with blessing in the form of sufficient resources for all of life while disobedience is punishable by destruction, desolation, and death. Since God's nature is love (1 John 4:8), he is the missionary God who spares nothing in his relentless pursuit of the redemption of his creation, even before he commands his people Israel to follow in his footsteps (Kaiser 2000, 18).
Genesis 1-3: Biblical Foundations for Sustainable life and Development
Genesis is important because it sets the foundation for God's initial plan for life on earth. This foundation is first about God's character and work. The Brundtland commission did not start by asking where creation came from, how it was created or who owns it and so its recommendations cannot have sustainable impact. The bible starts by answering those questions. In the beginning God set the standard for sustainable living and development by creating the universe specifically as he did, for his and our enjoyment (Gen. 2:9a.) and for resourcing human life. When he finished his work of creation, he said that it was good and rested. God gave ''us everything we need for life and godliness.' (2Peter 1:3) and therefore his work in creation was complete and sufficient for humanity if only they would know him and his plans for them well. God gave (Gen. 1:29) man the earth as a gift to use and tend. It would provide for his work, food, and land to live on (Gen. 1:28-30). Man's ability to tend the earth sustainably would be based on his understanding of God, his plan in creation and his own stewardship role (Gen.2:16).
Psalms 24:1,50:9-12 These verses declare God's ownership and creation of all the earth and its contents including human beings. Psalms 19:1-4 shows that in every language known to man, God's creation attests to his craftsmanship and glory. The rest of the bible is the story of how man fared in his attempt to live a life of obedience and how God rescued and redeemed him. Job 38-41 depicts God's challenge of Job's knowledge of creation in a way that caused him to 'repent in dust and ashes' (Job 42:6). World leaders who seek to a craft a strategy for life in the future without God would do well to consider in Job's experience.
God created everything and explained the purpose it was to serve. For instance, God gave light to mark the days, nights and seasons and to provide light on earth (Gen. 1:3, 14-19). In the marking of time, sleep and rest (Gen. 2:3) were also ordained. To sustain our lives, we need to work diligently (Eccl. 11:6) to achieve sufficient fruitfulness but to do that we must rest a healthy number of hours. Rest and particularly sleep was created as part of healthy living. That is why sleep deprivation is used as a tool of torture. People who are unwell need lots of sleep and rest to recover. Over-working is unhealthy not only because it unduly taxes the body but because it is skewered understanding of God's design for living. Okoye (2006, 29) states that 'At the conclusion of God's act of creation, God equally blessed the seventh day, that is, endowed it with force and vitality for all creatures.' This shows that rest in itself is useful in productivity.
The order that God gave to the seasons allows for the planning of production, easily seen in agriculture where timing determines the quantity and quality of the harvest. There is an ordained time for everything (Eccl. 3:1-8). Studies on indigenous knowledge describe how farmers observe the behavior of nature to understand the seasons. According to a friend of mine in a conversation recently, farmers living in Kwale, in coastal Kenya know by the kind of plants that shoot from the ground, what quality of rainfall would follow. Water is so important to the sustenance of life that it used to portray life in all its abundance (Rev. 7:17; 21:6). Muscles cramp and convulse in pain when they are starved for water. Genesis 1:6, 7 states that God created and separated the waters above from the waters below. The ground would receive water from rain clouds and ground springs, wells, rivers, lakes and seas. Without water, food production would be near impossible. Abraham and Lot separated over quarrels concerning the use of water for their animals. Is the human use of water today sustainable? In 1995, Ismail Serageldinn gave a warning that "if the wars of this century were fought over oil, the wars of the next century will be fought over water' ( US News' 2014). What the world does not have in place is a water care-and- share plan effective enough to prevent this war from starting because it does not have God's design for the use of his resources.
God freely gave a large variety plants with seed in them (Gen.1:29) to keep plants reproducing generation after generation and supplying nutritious food for all creation. Seed provides for the existence of future generations of all species. That is why in Kenya farmers demonstrate on the streets when the seeds available for sale are insufficient, late for the rains or do not germinate.
God created man in his own image and likeness (Gen. 1:26) with responsibility for dominion over the earth and capacity for fruitfulness in child bearing and food (Gen. 1:28). Matthew Henry (PC Study Bible 4 Complete Reference Library) states that 'God's image upon man consists in knowledge, righteousness, and true holiness' (Eph. 4:24 ; Col. 3:10). Eph. 2:10 further states that God created us for productivity in his mission. Our strategies on future life must, having recognized God's ownership and creative work on the universe, include his workmanship and ownership of human beings. We are not free to craft our lives and future independent of God. This is not a religious option for a few people- it is our human DNA. This is life now and in eternity with God or desolation, death and separation from God
God created man and woman for loving and just relationships with each other. Eve was made out of Adam, the closest bond that could possibly be (Gen. 2:23). In Eph. 5:22-33 this relationship exemplifies the nature of church which has the mandate to administer principles for sustainable living in community. It has to do with following God's design for human relationships for when humans are in conflict, those with power will use it to subjugate and hurt the weaker ones. In just relationships, no one has to live in lack or shame (Gen. 2: 25). The nature of God's justice mission is seen in his declaration of Sabbath rest (Ex. 20:10-11) for all- family members, servants, animals and refugees (Okoye 2006, 28-29).
God created Adam and Eve in his image and likeness. It is not clear whether Adam and Eve understood the implications of the stewardship mandate God gave them. They may have been very secure in God's presence and provision and did not have an alternative scenario of chaos, lack, and disharmony to compare with. In their security, they became weak to the logic of the serpent (Gen. 3:1-4) even though God had told them that the consequences of their disobedience would be death (Gen. 2:17). In our time, the consequences of ignoring God and putting together protocols that fail to consider his plan and will for all of life is still death.
God's first act of redemption (Gen. 3:21) was in the making of tunics of skin for clothing. God would continue his mission work of sustaining humankind's life throughout history sparing nothing, not even his own Son (John 3:16, 17).
Leviticus 26: God's Requirements for Sustainable Living
Leviticus 26 explains further God's declarations in Genesis 1:16-17 concerning the blessings of obedience- life sustained by God and the curses of disobedience- death and separation from God. In these laws, God does not consider his ordinances as one of the many available choices we can make but the only way to live. Twenty times in the book of Leviticus, God declares 'I am the Lord your God'. Hostility towards him will earn us the loss of our children, the plague, death, and desolation (Lev.26:21-26).
God requires allegiance to him only as our source of wisdom for life and resources for use. We must maintain monotheism for God shares his place with no one else and wisdom from any other source is counterfeit to the extent that it is not consistent with his word (Lev. 26:1). As instituted in creation where God rested on the seventh day, here he reminds the Israelites to continue in rest and worship (Lev. 26:2). This is required of all whether leaders or lowest paid workers and refugees in societal care. Work and rest go together but each are of their own right integral for obedience to God's mission. Lack of meaningful productivity is unhealthy in principle while lack of rest is just as harmful. The Israelites are to know and follow God's decrees as a condition for blessings (Lev. 26:3).
Obedience to God's requirements for holy living brings with it blessings of all kinds. The blessings in these laws echo the blessings of creation when God prepared the earth for man's habitation. God will send 'rain in its season' (Lev. 26:4) and not floods so that the harvest will be plentiful and timely. God will also grant safety and peace through victory in war and strength of numbers (Lev. 26:5,6,9). To crown it all, God will live among his blessed people so that they will enjoy sweet fellowship with him, no longer slaves in Egypt but self assured citizens of God's kingdom (Lev. 26:13). God created the universe to be a happy and fulfilling place for man to live in. The fall of man through sin did not shatter God's vision for this joyful state of affairs but that did not mean that sin would go unpunished.
Failure to listen to God, to carry out his commands, rejection of his laws and violation of his covenant will bring harm (Lev. 26:14, 15). God's commands are for all humanity and all those who know God's command and fail to live by them bring calamity upon all human beings. For this reason, heads of state and government, international agencies, the common villager and religious leaders are not immune from God's wrath if they fail to live in obedience. War, disease, hunger and slavery will be the order of the day (Lev. 26: 16, 17). The curses in these laws echo the curses in Gen. 3:14-19 when the first man and woman were tempted by the serpent and fell into sin. Only God can provide salvation for fallen creation.
Fortunately, God's punishment is aimed at helping us realize our dire need of him. God's punishment is aimed at inducing confession of sin from us, repentant turning back to him and humble seeking of his will for sustainable life and development (Lev. 26:40-43). God established the universe by his spoken word. His plans for it are good for man. He established a covenant with man to remind him of God's will for life. God in his mercy is willing to forgive man for sin and sustain him through the hard times of exile and slavery because he is God (Lev. 26:44-46). Life is only sustainable when it is placed in the hands of its owner- God.
Matthew 13: 18-23 God has all kinds of people (A Gikuyu proverb)
When the Agikuyu people speak of people that are strange, stubborn and not open to correction, they may make a conclusion that God has all kinds of people. When in the beginning (Gen. 1:28, 29) God gave seed for fruitfulness and multiplication this introduced the term 'seed' as a metaphor of sustainability. The parable of the sower describes four kinds of people using the metaphors of seeds and sowing. It elaborates on the theme established in Leviticus 26: 14, 15 where those who fail to listen to God and obey his commands or who violate his covenant are those that are lured by the deceitfulness of other philosophies on life and miss the blessings of God.
Those who hear but do not understand (Matt. 13:19) God's role in creating, sustaining and making life productive for our benefit live and act in ignorance. They become prey to manipulation and abuse. They sense that human philosophies are insufficient at answering the questions of life but do not know enough of God and his will to stand scrutiny. They cannot speak confidently of God's ownership of the universe that he created or of his ordinances for human life on earth. Much of modern secular man falls into this category. God in his mercy continues to provide for them so that they live lives of complacency and godlessness. Their comfort inoculates them from the confrontational and bold nature of God's word. Their ignorance prepares them little for destruction.
Those who hear and understand God's plan for creation but do not build lasting foundations (root) to sustain them when their faith is challenged are crushed when persecution comes (Matt. 13:21). These are the nominal Christians of our church. They do well as long as there is no trouble but their faith cannot stand the test of opposition. They are only a little ahead of the seeds sown along the path. Their convictions about their faith are not deeply embedded and are easily up for sale to the highest bidder.
God laid out some foundations for good sowing. First, work is good (Gen. 1:28). Handouts that rob people of their potential for innovation and production (Gen. 2:15) are not good, for able-bodied people who choose not to work should not eat (2 Thess. 3:10-13). Second, justice is a godly requirement. Resources should be used wisely and distributed fairly to all for God gave freely to Adam and Eve in preparation for their fruitful multiplication and filling of the earth (Gen. 2:1-13). No one should have a monopoly over any resource freely given by God. The most vulnerable- widows, orphans, and refugees should be allowed extra opportunity to establish themselves (Deut.14:29). Third, saving is good for Jubilee years when the land must rest and for sometime in between planting and harvesting of new crop or when the rains fail or floods come. Those who do not save are made vulnerable to the elements or develop a culture of dependency, which the powerful use to their advantage. Prov. 6:6 speaks harshly to lazy people and asks them to consider the ways of the ant colony that works diligently even though its mental capacity is low compared to that of humans. Fourth, worship of God in gratitude for his wisdom in creation and sustenance and his generosity in provision of all we need is a regular part of our lives. In worship, we remind ourselves that our allegiance is to God and not to his hand. He alone is both creator and Lord of all. Fifth, Sabbath rest and rejuvenation for both man and land are integral parts of this foundation.
Those who receive the word may become successful in production leading to wealth but do not follow biblical principles for its administration. They are preoccupied with making more at the expense of rest, just relations, charity, and worship (1Tim. 6:9, 10). They rarely take sufficient time to rest and may struggle with fatigue, depression, anxiety, workaholisim, strained family relationships and fear of failure. This kind of life is not sustainable because it makes our children resent us and want nothing of our career choices. Sustainability by definition has to do with living in a way that protects life's resources for future generations (Brundtland 1987). Far too often children of missionaries want nothing to do with the mission field if it cost them precious time and attention from their parents. Some children whose parents made their fortunes in big business at the cost of time with their families end up wasting these fortunes on gambling, unwise investments, and parties since in their sheltered lives they have little concept for productivity. These are the curses of Lev. 26:22.
Those who hear the word and understand who God is and what his design for creation is and go on to act in obedience much like God expected of Adam and Eve when he gave them the dominion mandate (Gen. 1:28). Success does not come only to the hard working but to the God fearing. While that is good, success is dependent on hearing and understanding, accepting (Mark 4:20), retaining God's word and persevering (Luke 8:15) in times of trouble so that through endurance and good work, a good result is possible. For instance, Joseph walked so closely with God that he heard and understood the meaning of pharaoh's dreams. This had exponential effects on the future of his people that two half tribes of Israel were formed from his bloodline (Gen. 41, 48:5-6). Joseph is a good example of someone who heard, understood, acted and was successful beyond anything he could ever have imagined when he was young. Redford's analysis of the patriarchs understanding and interpretation of God's missional vision turns the tables on contemporary African appreciation of our venerated ancestors Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. They turn out to be myopic even though God time and time again explains to them his vision for the mission of blessing the nations of the earth (Redford 2012, 32'53). This is a problematic issue in a society where tribalism is excused even in the church. It is the reason why the African church even though endowed with many resources is slow in mission to other African people groups.
The early church as depicted in Acts 2:42 is also a good example. Many people within and outside the fellowship of believers were still reeling from the events of Christ's torture, trial, death on the cross, resurrection and return to heaven. He was no longer physically with them but had promised never to leave them. Through the empowering of the Holy Spirit, they had started to build their group strength by meeting together daily. 'Those who accepted his (Peter's) message were baptized and about three thousand were added to their number that day' (Acts 2:41). This is an echo of Mat.13:23 where those who hear and understand become successful and prosperous. Their prosperity is described in terms of attention to the apostles teaching, fellowship, breaking of the bread and prayer, in the miracles God granted them, in the sharing of everything they had so that those around them wished so much to have their joy and prosperity that they joined them (Acts 2:42-45). Enjoying and obeying the Word of God, fellowship, and generosity unleashed God's blessings so that no one lacked anything good.
This is sustainable living because peace is possible when all are fed and included in the family; when people have sufficient instruction in their faith that they understand the meaning and purpose of their existence; when they have a such a healthy balance between work and rest that they can be able to meet daily (Acts. 2:48) in the temple courts without it hurting their productivity. They are so productive that they have enough for themselves and more to share, though it must be said that generosity even in scarcity is so blessed by God that everyone has enough (Mark 6:42-44). The goals of sustainable development in the eradication of poverty, care of the environment and the equitable distribution of resources are only possible in a global society that shares faith in the God of creation.
As taught in Acts 2, devotion to the apostles teaching clarifies the church's mandate for dominion because the whole counsel of the word of God is learnt. Fellowship makes us look our neighbors in the face so that we cannot allow our consciences to act in ways that are detrimental to the welfare of others. The breaking of the bread together reminds us of the covenant with God that was sealed with the blood of his only Son, Jesus. This high price for our eternal survival makes it difficult for us to take lightly how we live. The church that Jesus died for is God's instrument for sustainable life and development so it must work hard to reach humanity and turn them away from their self-destructive ways.
2Corinthians 8-9 Generous Living
One of the main goals of sustainable development is the eradication of poverty. Far too many secular approaches to development see the poor primarily as recipients of aid. Asset based inventories of poor communities are not the norm in much development planning. A Biblical approach to sustainable development sees the poor as capable of development as soon as they are taught the word of God and understand it.
In Genesis, God created the universe and said that it was good (enough) seven times in Gen. 1. He blessed what he created with fruitfulness (or success) so that they increased in number. Increased numbers in birds, animals both domestic and wild, crops and Adam and Eve's offspring was one of God's blessings with implications. Fruitfulness means sufficiency, which brings security and well-being. God grants fruitfulness and success when humans work hard but worship him in their hard work and attribute their success to him. This is the source of generous giving and is open to all.
All who acknowledge God's ownership of the universe and authorship of successful living will be perpetually successful. Not only will they enjoy success, they will cause others to look to God because of their worship of him who is the giver. This is the description that Paul gives of the Macedonian church (2 Cor. 8:2-5) that was generous though they had gone through much trial and extreme poverty. Their devotion to the Lord first, resulted in overflowing joy in generosity. Perhaps this should be taught periodically to all churches, especially poor ones so that they can see that their devotion to the Lord will result in all manner of blessing, overflowing into generous giving; that they will see that they also have much to share, out of their extreme poverty, if only they will look to the Lord. The Lord is conversant with poverty for he himself was poor (2Cor. 8:9). His humility in poverty makes all who follow him spiritually rich and blessed as he describes them on the Sermon on the Mount (Mat. 5:3-10). No wealth can become sustained blessing without accompanying allegiance to God.
The Macedonian church is serving as an example for the Corinthian church that is also growing in their faith, speech, knowledge of God, love for the apostles and grace of giving (2Cor. 8:7-8). This shows that Christian spiritual disciples provide a foundation for a strong work ethic, just distribution of resources and wealth, care for the vulnerable and love for one another.
2 Cor. 9:6 shows that giving is an investment in other people's lives that has returns. Those who give benefit from their generosity to the extent of their investment. Generosity takes care of everyone's needs so that there is no waste in some areas when there is lack in others. The strength of a community lies where everyone looks out to the interests of others. To achieve this, people must cheerfully and willing plan what to give because this pleases God (2 Cor. 9:7). Matthew 13 shows that love of God through knowledge of his word is a prerequisite for this kind of attitude and discipline.
God sets the example by providing the resources for generous living. In creation, he gave (Gen. 1:29) so that Adam, Eve, and the rest of humanity would have everything they needed. The ultimate gift of God was his only Son (John 3:16) for our redemption and freedom to live a life of faith. In Leviticus 26, God promises blessings of rain (Lev. 26:4), safety (Lev. 26:5, 6, 9) and his presence (Lev. 26:13). In 2Cor. 9:10, 11 God supplies everything-faith, speech, knowledge, love, grace of giving (2Cor. 8:2-5), so that humanity has no excuse for their selfishness. Generosity will turn our hearts to God in thanksgiving (2Cor. 9:11-13). Paul calls it God's indescribable gift (2Cor 9:15).
Applying the Principles to Our Local Communities
My contention in this paper is that God's character, work and will in history is factual, direct and applying to all humans. Ismail Serageldin's credo states that
The world is my home
Humanity is my family
Non-violence is my creed
Peace, justice, equality and dignity for all is my purpose
Engagement, rationality, tolerance, dialogue, learning, and understanding are my means
With outstretched hands, we welcome all those who share these beliefs.
While this credo is admirable, while United Nations organizations efforts at constructing unifying strategies for sustainable development are admirable, they all lack a unifying theology that acknowledges God the creator, owner and missionary. Without it, sustainability is impossible.
Success is first a gift of God, then the result of diligent work. This perspective is quite helpful for believers in the development of strategies for sustainability. The first question we will need to ask is what God says and does about the situation in history and in our lives today. If we have allegiance to him and his word, then prayer, fasting, contemplation and conversation will not only give us God's answers but also deal with interpersonal conflict over partisan interests. Political will that subjects itself to the will of God becomes a powerful peace and sustainability agent.
How will Christians effectively reach those who do not subscribe to the teachings of the Bible? This is the mission of God and his servants (2Cor. 5:15). Bible based development principles must be developed by community members themselves, in their own languages and considering their ecological and cultural contexts. Where poverty is endemic, low self-esteem makes it difficult for people to believe in their capacity to understand and apply God's word to their lives. Those from outside the community who seek to help must help with the intention or working themselves out of their roles so that the result is one that the local people can own.
Two popular tools that have made an impact in community are the chronological Bible story methods and musicology. These tools use local languages to tell Bible stories and put these lessons into songs that are shaped after local culture. Song and drama are effective tools in any part of the world because of their interactive and familiar nature. The community can then discuss the lessons and implications informally and come out with their own contextualized applications. This makes them independent of development agencies but dependent on God (Myers 2011, 132) whose word shows them how to live sustainably.
A delightful way in which the ownership and creation of the universe is attributed to God is in the use of medicine derived directly from nature. This growing practice brings together indigenous knowledge with God's word and provides for affordable and healthy medicine. It is easy to establish in the rural areas and some adaptation makes it possible in the urban areas. For instance, the Anamed seminar (Hirt and Lindsey 2008) teaches participants how to identify and use many plants in the tropics, a valuable skill for people who live in places where a large variety of plants are available but many people do not know of their medicinal value. Every missionary who is a doctor in Africa should consider learning and teaching natural medicine as of first importance.
Unfortunately, promoting a biblical foundation for sustainable living and development is difficult in a secular world. The African society that is the product of traditional culture, modernity, and Christianity presents a unique challenge in this mission effort. We must keep an active awareness that indeed, the earth is the Lord's and everything in it, the world, and all who live in it (Ps. 24:1) and must work relentlessly to establish the kingdom of God in this generation.
In Genesis, God sets the foundation for sustainable living and development in his work of creation and covenant making with Adam and Eve. God provided everything for their stewardship mandate and so fairly stipulated the consequences of obedience or disobedience. Throughout the Bible, God is consistent in his expectation of total allegiance, provision, blessing, judgment, and redemption of humanity. Leviticus 26 further elaborates for the nation of Israel God's requirements of them if they are to enjoy his protection and blessings once he settles them in Canaan. Mathew 13 depicts Jesus teaching through parables to people who considered themselves knowledgeable of God's word but whose actions showed that they lacked in results. 2 Corinthians 8 and 9 describes generous living. Justice and equitable distribution of resources are possible by both the rich and the poor if only they will look to God for success but look around to see how they can give. The communal responsibility over resources that results lends itself to sustainability because waste is eliminated and no one lacks.
Brundtland, Gro Harlem. 1987. 'Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future'. World Commission on Environment and Development. http://www.un-documents.net/our-common-future.pdf. Accessed
Hirt, Dr. Hans-Martin, and Dr. Keith Lindsey. 2008. Natural Medicine in the Tropics: II Seminar Handbook. 3rd ed. 2 vols. Natural Medicine in the Tropics II. Dr. Hans=Martin Hirt and Dr. Keith Lindsey.
Kaiser, Walter C. Jr. 2000. Mission in the Old Testament: Israel as a Light to the Nations Reprint Edition by Kaiser, Walter C. Jr. Published by Baker Academic (2000) Paperback. 2nd Revised edition. Baker Academic.
Myers, Bryant L. 2011. Walking with the Poor: Principles and Practices of Transformational Development. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books.
Okoye, James Chukwuma. 2006. Israel and the Nations: A Mission Theology of the Old Testament. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books.
PC Study Bible 4 Complete Reference Library.
Redford, Shawn B. 2012. Missiological Hermeneutics: Biblical Interpretation for the Global Church. Eugene, Or.: Pickwick Publications.
'The Next Big Wars Will Be Fought Over Water - US News.' 2014. US News & World Report. Accessed March 27. http://www.usnews.com/opinion/blogs/clark-judge/2013/02/19/the-next-big-wars-will-be-fought-over-water.
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