Training in Indian banks

b) Questionnaire: A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents. Questionnaires are a survey instrument through which individuals respond to printed questions.

c) Interviews: Interviews means one or more series of active interchanges between two or more people. They can be conducted either face to face or via technology. The main task in interviewing is to understand the meaning of what the interviewees say. (Kvale,1996)

d) Peer Evaluation: Peer Evaluation is a process in which staff members use their own direct knowledge and experience to examine and judge the merit and value of another member in the organization.

e) Job Analysis: Job analysis is the formal process of identifying the content of a job in terms activities involved and attributes needed to perform the work and identifies major job requirements.

1.4 THE HISTORY OF TRAINING IN INDIAN BANKS

Institutionalized system of training in the banking industry commenced in India in 1954 with the establishment of the Banker’s Training College [BTC]. The Imperial Bank of India [State Bank of India [SBI]] also set up three schools almost the same tine to train Probationary Officers in Calcutta, Bombay and Madras. The focus of training curriculum until early 1960, however, was on hard core principles and techniques of banking and the target group were entry level officers and branch managers. Nationalization of banks in 1969 ushered the concept of mass banking followed by phenomenal expansion of branches, number of employees, and diversification of portfolio, etc.

The banking industry responded to these challenges by expanding in house training facilities, setting up an apex level institute, National Institute of Bank Management [NIBM] to specially cater to the felt needs of the entire industry, sponsoring large number of officers to reputed management institutes and professional bodies within and outside the country. “Multitude of institutions, training programs and large number of officers and staff members trained over the years is a clear indication of the popularity of training and development activities in Public Sector Banks.

Chapter 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

“The author himself is the best judge of his own performance; none has so deeply mediated on the subject; none is so sincerely interested in event”.

Edward Gibbon “Memories of My Life” (1976)

2.1 Training And Development

Writers define the terms training and development, and other related terms, in varying ways.

Fitz-enz (1984) distinguishes between education and training. He notes that “education is the presentation of concepts and information to people for the purpose of imparting knowledge, while training is … an interactive exercise whose goal is to develop skills and competencies within the workforce. It is one thing to know; it is something different to be able to do” (p 225). However, the Organisation for Economic Development (OECD) notes that “the dual role now performed by the education system [of preparation for citizenship and life as well as developing employment-related competencies] so blurs the boundary between vocational training and education as to make the distinction between them not only difficult, but unimportant” (OECD, 1997, p 56). The OECD defines training as “all the various processes by which an individual develops the competencies required for employment-related tasks” (OECD, 1997, p 19).

Training is indeed a waste of money when the desired behavior does not occur. Gupta acknowledges that not all performance problems can be addressed by training. In many cases, non training interventions are necessary (Gupta 1999).

Development is also sometimes distinguished from training, with development defined in terms of broader capability to take up future work and career opportunities, beyond the competencies required for a current position. Collett (1998) refers to the need to “keep the twin activities of training and development in balance — to develop capability [for future work] not just competence [for current position]” (p 18).

Training is an input. The extent to which “competencies are actually gained in any instance depends on the level and quantity of inputs, the innate abilities of the trainee and motivation to learn” (OECD, 1997, p 19).

Wexler K N (1984) in his study on “Personnel Training” defines “Employee training and development as an attempt to improve current or future performance of an employee to perform through learning, usually by changing the employee’s attitudes or increasing his or her skills and knowledge”.

For the purposes of this study, the working definition of training and development is adapted from that proposed by the OECD (1997): “all the various processes by which an individual develops the competencies required for current and future employment-related tasks”

This definition is broad enough to allow for a wide range of training and development activities to be included, but focused enough to exclude activities unrelated to employment.

2.2 Categories of Training

Because “training” as defined above is such a general term, collection of information about training usually focuses on one or more categories of training. The OECD’s Manual for Better Training Statistics (1997) provides a comprehensive set of training categories. It describes formal and informal training as different structural forms of training, and also defines several dichotomies of vocational training: internal vs. external training; initial vs. continuing training; on-the-job vs. off-the-job training; and specific vs. general training;

a) Formal and Informal Training

Many writers distinguish between formal and informal training. Formal training is generally described as training that has time set aside for it, rather than training that is carried out in the normal course of work (Decision Research Ltd, 1997). The OECD (1997) describes the key difference in terms of planning, where the purpose and format of formal training are predetermined, whereas informal training is improvised (p 63).

The OECD (1991) notes that “alternative modes of training may lie on a continuum from quite formal classroom-based to quite informal interactions among coworkers or situations where new hires simply ask questions or watch others do the work” (p 15).

b) Internal, External and In-House Training

The OECD (1997) distinguishes internal from external training on the basis of delivery. Internal training is delivered by the organization’s own employees while external training is delivered to an organization’s employees by persons who are not part of that organisation (p 61). It describes in-house training as training that an organisation provides to meet the specific needs of its own employees, which may consist of internal or external training.

The 1996 Education and Training Survey conducted by Statistics New Zealand makes the distinction between external and internal training on the basis of responsibility for organisation (rather than delivery) of the training (Gobbi, 1998, pp 110-111).

c) General and Specific Training

Chapman (1993) has pointed out that a major development in the theory of training is the distinction between training relevant to a wide variety of tasks and training which is more specific to the job and firm—general training and specific training.

Becker (1975) applied an economic approach to training and defined general training as that useful in many firms besides those providing it, and specific training as that which increases the productivity of employees in that particular firm — but not in others. His hypothesis was that employees would bear the costs of general training, because it increased employability in many firms, while employers would bear the cost of specific training because it equipped the employees to work more productively in their specific firm, without increasing the risks of the employees quitting to take their new skills elsewhere (p 32).

However, subsequent research has found that the actual behaviours of employers and learners/employees do not fit this model particularly well (e.g. Stern & Ritzen, 1991, p 1), and that in fact most training within firms is of a general nature and exportable to other firms (OECD, 1999, p 137).

There are often difficulties in categorizing training as purely general or purely specific, since most training combines elements of both specific and general training to a greater or lesser degree (OECD, 1997, p 61).

2.3 Training And Development Policy And Initiatives

Penny Hackett (1997) in his study on “Introduction to Training” concluded that training policy is considered as the training vision of the organization which helps to draw short term and long term training strategy for achieving organizational objectives through training intervention.

It is important that in a service industry like banking, suitable training policies are developed for the better functioning of the system.

In a rigorous study conducted by Sharad Kumar (2004) on “Training Initiative in Banks” it was observed that, in most of the banks, either the training policy is not clearly formulated or, even if it is formulated, it has been kept as a historical document which is rarely referred to while implementing training strategy.

Ulrich D. Jick T and Von Glinow. (1993) in their study on “High-Impact Learning: Building and Diffusing Learning Capability.” Organization at Dynamics concluded that “Ongoing training is the basis of organisational learning, since it favors the sharing of ideas and best practices, helping the transfer of knowledge, and avoiding the stagnation of knowledge stored in the organisational routines and culture, and the mind of individual”

All these findings confirm the importance of having a well developed training policy in the organisation to have all round development of the organisation.

So, the purpose of this study is to identify the key factors and challenges faced by the bank employees leading to the demand for training and development policy and practices.

2.4 Impact Of Training And Development

According to Dessler (1999) “Teamwork doesn’t just happen, instead employees must be trained to be good team members. Under this context, the training will be highly relevant to the job and will be effective through enjoyable practical exercises, which will add value to all employees.

2.5 Impact of Training and Development on Performance

“Remember, training is not what is ultimately important… performance is.”

Marc Rosenberg

The job satisfaction, employee commitment and motivation are highly regarded as important to the training and development measurement of organizational performance. Employees should be treated as valued assets, a source of competitive advantage through their commitment, adaptability and quality of skills and performance (Guest, 1997). Many organizations assume that employees are satisfied simply because they have a job. As a result, employers do not attempt to involve employees with decision making or motivating them; but, the emphasis should therefore be on generating commitment through “communication, motivation and leadership” (Storey, 1987, p. 6), “employees’ commitment will yield better economic performance” (Storey, 1995, p. 35).

Dessler (1999) in his study on customer service Training Programs found that the implementation of customer service training programs can improve employee’s behavior and enhance their performance. Customer service training will allow employees to become “familiarized” with the company’s “history, its growth and expansion, and the company’s expectations regarding customer service and the firm’s work ethics”.

McNamara (1999) in his attempt to know the impact of training has pinpointed increased job satisfaction and morale among employees, increased employee motivation, increased efficiencies in processes resulting in financial gain, increased capacity to adopt new technologies and methods, increased innovation in strategies and products, reduced employee turnover and enhanced company image as the possible outcomes of training in business.

2.6 Role of Training and Development In Achieving High Performance

Beginning in the 1990’s, Watson Wyatt, a leading Business consultancy, began looking at some of the Human Capital drivers of organizational performance, and the kinds of HR Practices that could enhance that performance. They called these key practices the Human Capital Index. One of the items that they looked at was training initiatives. In their first two studies they found that the companies that provide training on only the basic technical skills required to perform a job saw a decrease in returns for performance of the company. It wasn’t until their 2005 HCI Report that they saw a reversal in that negative return and saw organizations that provided developmental training programs achieve a positive impact on organizational performance. What the 2005 study revealed was that in order for organizations to see a return on training investment beyond the basics to do the job was that the employee needed to be actually retained as an employee.

One of the most telling of these studies was a large undertaking by McBassi And Company (2004), which was set out to answer two specific questions: First, does training really have a direct impact on organizational performance and second, if training does have an impact, which kinds of training have impact? The research discovered a strong correlation between the best performing organizations and the amount of training that was conducted, indicating that training actually did impact on performance. In their attempt to answer the second question, training programs were divided into three categories:

a) Business Skills Training

b) Technical skills Training

c) Fundamental (Soft) Skills Training

On analyzing the results they found that fundamental skills had the most impact on organizational performance; in fact, 75% more impact than technical skills training. But business skills had no significant impact on organizational performance one way or the other.

Based on the above analysis, in a study conducted by Gary Lear (Resource Development Systems, 2010), on “Training’s Role in Achieving High Performance” it was concluded that though Training and Development programs provide value to the performance of the organization but all training programs are not equal in helping the organization perform. There are key areas where Training and Development should place its efforts and resources.

2.7 Theoretical Models Linking Training to Firm Performance

The knowledge and skills of workers acquired through training have become important in the face of the increasingly rapid changes in technology, products, and systems. Most organisations invest in training because they believe that higher performance will result (Alliger, et al. 1997, Kozlowski, et al. 2000). However, the theoretical framework for the relationship between training and firm performance has been subject to considerable debate.

Devanna, Formbrun and Tichy (1984) proposed a model which emphasizes the interrelatedness and coherence of human resource management (HRM) policies and performance. According to their model, training and other HRM activities aim to increase individual performance, which is believed to lead to higher firm performance.

Guest (1987) developed a theoretical framework to show how HRM policies can affect human resources and organizational outcomes. He saw commitment as a vital outcome, concerned with the goals linking employees with firm performance as the goal of quality is important to ensure the high quality of products and services. Therefore, training and development policy play an importance role in HRM and contribute to improved strategic integration, employee commitment, flexibility and quality. HRM outcomes can then lead to high job performance.

Another theoretical framework which emphasizes the interrelatedness and the coherence of HR practices, firm strategy and firm level outcomes is presented by Wright and McMahan (1992). They present six theoretical models from the fields of organisational theory, finance and economics. Three of them (resource based view of the firm, cybernetic systems, and behavioral perspective) consider the relationship between training and firm performance.

First, is the resource based view. Firm resources include physical capital, human capital and organisational capital that enable the firm to improve its efficiency and effectiveness. Its resources determine the strength of a firm in the long term. In order for a firm’s resources to provide sustained competitive advantages, however, they must have four attributes: 1) valuable, 2) rare, 3) imperfectly imitable, and 4) cannot be replaced with another resource by competing companies (Barney 1991). Applying the resource based view to training suggests that training can provide knowledge and skills for employees and in turn this may lead to high firm performance.

Second, are the behavioral perspective models. Employee behaviour plays an important role as a mediator between strategy and firm performance (Schuler & Jackson 1987, Schuler 1989). The models focus only on employee role behaviours because the employee’s attitudes, behaviours and commitments could affect the firm performance. Thus, the employee role behaviour can be instrumental in the creation of a competitive advantage. HRM practices can be considered as an option to promote the role behaviour more efficiently and effectively, especially HR training policy.

Third, a popular theoretical model applied to HRM literature is a cybernetic model of HR systems. It is based on the general systems models and includes input from the environment (i.e., inputs of HR knowledge, skills, and abilities), throughput (HR behaviours) and output systems (productivity, sale, job satisfaction and turnover). When the model is applied to strategic HRM, Wright and Snell (1991) focus on two major responsibilities: competence management (deals with individual skills required to implement a given organizational strategy) and behaviour management (activities that seek to agree and coordinate attitude and behaviour of individuals for organisational strategy and goals). Therefore, training will improve knowledge, skills, abilities and the behaviour of employees. This in turn leads to positive organisational outcomes.

Recently, an excellent analytical framework, which uses a multi level approach to training, has been offered by Kozlowski and Klein (2000). The multi level model bridges the gap between theoretical models of training needs assessment, design, and evaluation, and the higher levels at which training must have an impact if it is to contribute to organizational effectiveness (Kozlowski & Salas 1997). The model is focused on training transfer and is embedded in two distinct transfer types: horizontal and vertical transfer. Horizontal transfer concentrates on traditional models of training effectiveness. Vertical transfer examines the link between individual training outcomes and organisational outcomes.

To summarize, first, it is obvious that similarities exist between the normative models of HRM, whether it is the United State of America (U.S.) perspective (Devanna, et al. 1984), or the British model (Guest 1987). These authors have put training on a set of HRM policies and consider training as an important and vital policy for improving knowledge, skills, attitude and motivation of employees. Second, the HR system is a complex set of policies designed to manage labour in the organisation and integrate into organisational strategy in order to create high performance for an organisation. Third, this review of theoretical models linking training to firm performance also suggests that it is explicitly recognized that no organisation can attain its goals or organisational strategy without labour that has the right knowledge, skills, abilities, behaviour, and attitudes. Therefore, training plays an important role in improving the quality of employees directly and effecting on firm performance through HR outcomes.

2.8 Successful Models Of Training And Development

There are many models of training and development that have made greater progress into organizational settings, which have began to have a greater impact on instructional design. Specifically, Instructional Systems Design (ISD), Human Performance Technology (HPT), Performance-Based Instructional Design (PBID), and Total Quality Management (TQM), all of which originate from research in the area of organizational development.

A study conducted by Juliana. S. Manu (2004) seeks to describe the successful models of training and development, found that there are four major models that may be applied.

The selected models include ADDIE model, Human Performance Technology, Performance-Based Instructional Design, and Total Quality Management.

a) Instructional System Design (ISD) was created by the United States military as an efficient and effective way to train soldiers (Rothwell & Kanzanas, 1992). The goal of ISD is to improve human performance. It is based on the assumption that learning should not be developed in a random practice, but should be occurred in correspondence with organized processes, be organized to the target audience, and have outcomes that can be measured.

The ADDIE model is a term practically synonymous with Instructional System Development, which not only generates practical application of skill level improvement, but also is useful for training and development. ADDIE model is a step-by-step process of the training. This model allows the learners to master a skill, knowledge, or attitude. The model focuses on the job by having the learner achieve standards necessary for the proper job performance (Rothwell & Benkowski, 2002).

b) Human Performance Technology (HPT) is a training and instructional system that many businesses use to enhance productivity and to achieve the business goals of the organization. “Combined with learning and instructional technology, HPT provides a strategy for focusing directly on performance improvement” (Rothwell, 1996, p. 5). This model has improved human competence and productivity beyond traditional concepts of training and human resource development. Additionally, HPT analyzes elements of a system, and directly generates significant economic impact on organization. Human performance technology is constantly searching for the most effective and efficient ways to obtain results at the least cost” (Stolovitch & Keeps, 1992, p. 7).

c) Performance-Based Training Design (PBID) was designed by David J. Pucel, a professor from the University of Minnesota. “Because it is a system and each component is directly related to other component, the relationships among the components must be understood for the system to be used effectively” (Pucel, 1989, p.16). This model teaches employees job performance that enables them to go back to work and do the job, not just know how to do the job. The design includes hands-on exercises to replicate the actual function of what is being taught.

d) Total Quality Management (TQM) is management approach to long-term success through customer satisfaction. It is based on the participation of all employees of the organization in the improvement of processes, products, services and the organizational culture.

The research has examined the applicability of Total Quality Management. TQM is a way of achieving and maintaining excellence used in establishment of organization. Research has shown that through TQM methods, the organizations have shown improvement in communication, employee morale, productivity, process efficiency, and have also reduced cost and waste.

2.9 Training Need Assessment

Need identification is the starting point in any training and development activity. Need identification or assessment is not a routine function, because it should conduct carefully and in a diagnostic manner (Al- Khayyat & Elgamal, 1997). According to Lee and Roadman, need assessment is the systematic process of determining goals, identifying discrepancies between actual and desired conditions, and establishing priorities for action (cited by Lee & Owens, 2000, p. 5).

De Simon and Harris (1998) state that “a need can either be a current deficiency, such as a poor employee performance, or a new challenge that demands a change in the way the organization operates”. They also report that an assessment is a way to collect information that can be used to decide what type of development will be perceived as relevant and useful. Organizational gaps will be identified and considered, if the problem can be solved by training.

The assessment begins with a “need” which can be identified in several ways but is generally described as a gap between what is currently in place and what is needed, now and in the future (Miller et al, 2002).

A Gould et al (2004) state that Training needs analysis is the initial step in a cyclical process which contributes to the overall training and educational strategy of staff in an organization or a professional group. The cycle commences with a systematic consultation to identify the learning needs of the population considered, followed by course planning, delivery and evaluation.

2.91 Levels of Training Need

Need assessments offer performance improvement initiatives as unique opportunities to approach performance improvement from a variety of assessment level: individual, organizational and/or societal level.

Van Dyk et al (1997) refer to three levels of training needs: Macro (need of national and even international interest), Meso (organization’s specific requirement) and Micro level (only one person’s or a small population’s need). Mathews, et al (2001) training needs assessment is dominated by senior management decision and supervisors’ opinions. The skills inventory is the most widely applied formal technique. Organizations tend to pay more attention to customers and work groups when defining training needs. In general, objective and formal methods should be adopted more widely.

2,92 Models of Needs Assessment

Needs assessment models vary in their focus on the results to be achieved and/or the processes assumed to achieve results: difference of “doing the right things” versus “doing things right” as suggested by Drucker (1973).

Newstrom and Lilyquist (1979) developed a contingency model to evaluate various needs assessment methods. They evaluated twelve methods on the basis of five selected criteria: Employee involvement: Management involvement; Time required; Costs; and Relevant quantifiable data. Newstrom and Lilyquist (1979) recommended that weaknesses in one method could be balanced by including other complementary methods and that trainers needed to weigh the criteria in terms of their importance to the organisation.

Graham and Mihal (1986) offer readers an alternate model for developing a needs assessment that uses a surveying approach that is less likely to be biased by the perceptions of managers. They use the implications of this to recommend a four-step survey process :i) manager determine the task related to their work ii) managers identify which tasks they believe their performance could be improved upon iii) managers prioritize development desires and iv) superiors then validate the development desires of their managers.

Ostroff and Ford (1989): their model is one of the several models for need assessment derived from McGehee and Thayer’s (1961) text Training in Business and Industry. This text proposes that training requirements are analyzed according to three content areas: organizational, task and person. Ostroff and Ford expand this framework by including a “levels” dimension (consisting of organizational, sub-unit and individual) as well as an “application” dimension.

McClelland (1993) in his second article provides practitioners with recommendations for conducting an assessment. He begins by differentiating assessments and surveys and suggests that surveys alone do not constitute a needs assessment. A prescription for implementing an open systems Training needs assessments (TNA) is provided. TNAs are a popular and valuable tool for the human resource development professional in determining an organization’s skill, knowledge and talent base. At the same time it provides information on areas where training programs can be effectively implemented with greatest impact.

According to Kaufman (1998) Organizational Element Model (OEM) is the only needs assessment framework reviewed that formally address the linkage between every result focus (societal, organizational, small-group and individual). OEM framework suggests that a need assessment begin with a focus on societal results and roll-down to organizational and individual or small-group results.

Lee and Owens (2000) in their study have chalked out a plan for the activities that can be used to determine the present conditions of the organization.

Step one: Identify the knowledge and skill needed to perform the task(s).

Step two: Identify the job-specific knowledge and skill areas used to select people for the task(s).

Step three: This depends on whether there is a match between the results of steps one and two. If there isn’t, then identify the skills that are missing and review for possible training or performance support applications, and consider revision of employee-selection criteria.

Step four: If there is a match between steps one and two, then look for environmental causes of the problem. Visit the work environment and compare average performance with exemplary or ideal performance. Identify gaps in performance, and continue with step five.

Step five: Document task performance that is acted by such environmental factors as: Noise, Equipment, Tools, Temperature and Work space.

Step six: Review all results and identify areas of need.

Step seven: Gather data from employee about: Management support, Existing training, Teamwork and empowerment, Workflow and processes and Safety.

Step eight: Review all results and identify areas of need (Lee & Owens, 2000, p. 7&8).

The organizational analysis takes a current overview of the entire organization’s operational and structural framework.

According to a study conducted by Juliana S. Manu (2004), where the purpose of the research was to describe needs assessment for conducting training and development programs, it was found that needs assessment is a systematic exploration of the way an organization should function. For Ghanaian firms to establish a successful training and development program, the following must be taken into account:

a) Determine what training is relevant to the employees’ job

b) Determine what training will improve performance

c) Determine if training will make a difference

d) Differentiate training needs from organization problem

e) Improve job performance with organizational goal and bottom-line.

The models discussed above, have all contributed in various ways to the development of an effective and efficient TNA process. However, few offer a comprehensive view of organizational and individual training needs and goals. This means that a combination of the above models may be needed to carry out an appropriate TNA, thus increasing the amount of time and resources spent on the entire TNA process.

It is generally found that the Training Needs Identification [TNJ] is not properly done in banks. The training objectives are rarely linked to the business objectives due to inadequacy of Training Needs Identification [TNI]. In a dynamic environment, the training strategy has to be formulated on the basis of sound ‘Training Needs Identification [TNI] which should be refined on a sound basis.

2.93 Barriers to Training Need Assessment

Fairbairns (1991) suggests that many needs analysis technique fail to produce reliable information. She identifies two questions common to many needs analysis i) what skills, knowledge and/or personal attributes are important in your job and ii) in what skills, knowledge and/or personal attributes are you in “need” of training.

Wright and Geroy (1992) like other articles highlighting the limitations of the training need assessment noted that “between 80% and 90% of the productivity improvement can be found in the work environment or cultures” and thus a “need-analysis-tied-exclusively-to training” is often ineffective. A needs assessment model utilized in their research with the Ontario Skills Programme, they additionally make suggestions for the selection of a needs assessment model.

Abdullah (2009) suggested that absence of needs assessment and analysis is due to lack of expertise and it is irrespective of the size of firms. Other inhibiting factors mentioned by the organisations sampled include high employee turnover, the absence of a clear HRD plan and policy and the absence of a separate unit or section to handle employees’ training and development. Manufacturing companies in Malaysia often had forsaken the medium and long term HRD needs and objectives.

2.10 TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT IN BANKING SECTOR

Donald L. Kirkpatrick (1997), Evaluation, Training and Development Handbook approached its, evaluation process in a more logical way. He emphasized that while evaluating training, instead of just studying the reactions of the trainees, the study could be carried out in four different levels viz., i.e., reaction, learning, behaviour and results.

Jane Richards (1997), in his study on Management Training-the Real Objectives, views that the real objective of the training program must be to focus on the individual manager, not the position in the company.

Shishupal Singh Badhu and Karunesh Saxena (1999), Role of Training in Developing Human Resources is another work of relevance. In this, the authors concluded that an organization should have well-defined training policy as well as training manual and training should be made an ongoing process. Regarding the executive development programmes the authors have concluded that, these programmes have been found to be useful in improving the productivity, efficiency and effectiveness of managers. The authors have suggested that these programmes should be included as an integral part of the training programme.

Riyaz Rainaye (2004), in their study empirically examined the training policy in two commercial banks, namely, State Bank of India and Jammu & Kashmir Bank Limited. The focus is on the various facets of training including Management’s attitude towards training, training inputs, quality of training programmes and transfer of training to the job. Whereas it records that the training scenario is to a large extent satisfactory. It evaluates the opinions of the employees of two cadres of both banks: in particular that it can be made fully effective only when the training needs assessment and transfer of training to the job are considerably improved, besides bringing in finer improvements in other dimensions.

Niki Glaveli; Stella Kufidu (2005), in their paper analyzed the changes that took place in the Greek banking industry in the last years, their impact on the role of employees training and development for strategy implementation and success, using four case studies to investigate the effect of the environmental changes on these particular banks and the role of their training and development strategies in adjusting themselves to the changing industry environment.

K. Karthikeyan, R. Karthi. (July 2010) In their study to find out the Effectiveness of Training, concluded that when effectiveness of training increases, it directly has a positive influence on growth & result of the banks. So training is really effective in all the banks.

The above literature reviews have either emphasized on the importance of Training and Development for the effectiveness of organizations or have focused on the significance of identification and assessment of need for Training and Development. But all these studies have been negligent in focusing the need assessment process and its identification in the contemporary environment. Also, need assessment for Training and Development is very vital in exploring the relevance of current Training and Development mechanism pertaining to the banking industry.

The study attempts to fill this research gap by making an exhaustive attempt to assess the need in the contemporary environment and match the existing training and development methods with the identified needs, thereby, exploring the soundness of the Training and Development Methods in catering to the required needs. The proposed study is expected to help the banking industry in devising the training and development mechanism for the need assessment to become more competitive in this contemporary environment.

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