Essay: DETERMINING THE COGNITIVE AND SOCIAL HEALTH EFFECTS OF WATCHING TWO WIVES TO PRESCHOOLERS WITHOUT PARENTAL GUIDANCE

CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING
Introduction
The Philippines has very powerful background in terms of television media. One of the companies that produce very promising shows is ABS ‘ CBN which has been serving the industry since year 1953. ABS ‘ CBN television shows are aired nationwide; hence, everyone in the Philippines would be able to have access to these shows, including the children five years old or younger.
The ABS-CBN company produces non-general patronized television shows such as: profanity, violence, sex, horror, drugs and etc; therefore, parental guidance really is required and necessary for the young audiences, especially for the preschoolers. According to Dr. Emma Raizman (2013), violence on TV is much different than the violence we were watching when we were younger, so there is a lot more of it. And the problem is the kids imitate what’s on TV. So, not only are they imitating it after watching it a great deal it becomes their reality, so all of a sudden their world is a world is much more violent.
There are numerous studies conducted about determining the behavioral effects of watching television programs to children not suitable to the ages in various attempts and procedures. Many of these studies are more on observation of the researcher to the participants who watch a certain television program with themes and scenes not appropriate for them. An experiment conducted by Alison Parkes has reported that examined the independent effects of television content (violence) and television formal features (action level) on children’s attention to programs and their post-viewing social behavior.
The inhibition of children to watching television shows is unavoidable hence that the responsibility of guidance over the children to television media is on the parents. According to Professor Hugh Perry (2013), of the Medical Research Council, which funded the study: ‘We’re living in a world that is increasingly dominated by electronic entertainment, and parents are understandably concerned about the impact this might be having on their children’s well-being and mental health’?

Theoretical Framework
The theories that state the perception of the children about their viewpoint on their environment are: Cognitive Theory, Dynamic Systems Theory and Social Learning Theory. Among these three general theories; Cognitive and Dynamic systems are supported by the Social Learning Theory in which study is based from.
The Cognitive Learning Theory explains why the brain is the most incredible network of information processing and interpretation in the body as we learn things. This theory can be divided into two specific theories: the Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), and the Cognitive Behavioral Theory (CBT).
In the Social Cognitive Theory, the following variables are to be considered’behavioral factors, environmental factors (extrinsic), personal factors (intrinsic). These three variables in Social Cognitive Theory are said to be interrelated with each other, causing learning to occur. An individual’s personal experience can converge with the behavioral determinants and the environmental factors.
Cognitive Behavioral Theory describes the role of cognition (knowing) to determining and predicting the behavioral pattern of an individual. The Cognitive Behavioral Theory says that individuals tend to form self-concepts that affect the behavior they display (Levine and Munsch, 2010).
The Dynamic Systems Theory provides evidence that biological maturation operates in interaction with environmental influences (Spencer et al., 2006). In Social Learning Theory, Albert Bandura (1977) states behavior is learned from the environment through the process of observational learning.
According to Social Learning Theory, observing models on television can have three main effects. Firstly, new forms of behavior can be learnt from models. Secondly, observing models can weaken inhibitions (disinhibition) or strengthen them (inhibition). In this case, the behavior in question is already present in behavioral repertoire of a child. In addition, of course, the behavior in question must be subject to inhibitions. A third effect, which is less important in the present context, is that observing models can facilitate social behavior, in which case the socially acceptable behavior of others is encouragement to do likewise.

C. Conceptual Framework

Figure 1.1
The diagram shows the framework of the study. The bases of the research study are the Cognitive and the Dynamic Systems theory which are supported by the Social Learning Theory.

D. Statement of the Problem
The main objective if the research study is to identify the behavioral effects of television shows from Two Wives to the preschooler participant.
1. What are the behavioral effects of television Two Wives to selected preschoolers in terms of changed in behavioural factors?
a. Social health
b. Cognitive impact

2. What does the Psychological ‘ Behavioral drawing tests say about the drawing of the preschooler?

E. Significance of the Study
This can be highly important to parents and children in terms of the behavioral aspects. And of course, more importantly, this is not just for the compensation of oneself from necessary predicaments but also the better understanding of their behavioral locality.
Parents. This proposal would be very beneficial to parents to the reason that they will be able to guide their children accordingly to the results the study will be able to unlock and accomplish. According to Marie Hartwell-Walker (2010), effective parents are taking nature into account in their nurturing. This study will help parents guiding their children when children watch in television.
Children. This is significant to children specifically, the preschoolers. They will have better understanding to what they are watching in televisions with the supervision of their respective parents. According to Dr. Alison (2010), limiting the amount of time children spend in front of the TV is, in itself, unlikely to improve psychosocial adjustment.
Future Researchers. This research study is beneficial for future researchers that will conduct studies with similar concepts that will be discussed in the study to be conducted by the researcher. The potential of the Filipino excellence lies in wait to be celebrated for its depth and the researchers believe that if future studies would be made, consulting this paper as a source of valuable data would be a significant move for them.

F. Scope and Limitations
The research will focus on the behavioral effects of ABS-CBN Primetime Televisions shows to Filipino preschoolers and parents. It will tackle the fields of changes in the mannerisms, way of speaking, attention and interests of preschoolers. Examinees research on the relation between attitude and behavior in light of the correspondence between attitudinal and behavioral entities. Such entities are defined by their target, action, context, and time elements.
On the other hand, the research will only focus on the behavioral effects and will not be discussing other categories that may also relate to the study to be conducted. The researcher will only focus all the tests and observations to one participant since the design used for the study is the Case Study Design.
G. Definition of Key Terms
The following are the key terminologies used throughout the research paper.
Behavior. The way a person or animal acts or behaves. It is the way something moves, functions or reacts. (Levine, 2010)
Preschooler. A child who is old enough to talk and walk but who is too young to go to school. (Fuchs, 2013)
Television. An electronic system of sending images and sounds by a wire or through space. It is a piece of equipment with a screen that receives images and sounds. (Dawson, 2010)
Theme. The main subject that is being discussed or described in a piece of writing, movie, etc. (Fornieles, 2015)
Profanity. offensive language. (O’Brien-Strain, 2011)
Violence. The use of physical force to harm someone, damage property, etc. (Munch, 2011)
Sex. physical activity in which people touch each other’s bodies, kiss each other, etc. : physical activity that is related to and often includes sexual intercourse. (Miriam-Webster Dictionary, 2014)
Horror. the quality of something that causes feelings of fear, dread, and shock : the horrible or shocking quality or character of something. (Miriam-Webster Dictionary, 2014)

CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
Related Legal Basis
A. The Republic Act No. 8370: Children’s Television Act Of 1997
According to the Declaration of Policy of The Republic Act No. 8370: Children’s Television Act Of 1997, ‘The State recognizes the vital role of they outh in nation-building and shall promote and protect their physical, moral, spiritual, intellectual and social well-being by enhancing their over-all development, taking into account sectoral needs and conditions in the development of educational, cultural, recreational policies and programs addressed to them (1997).’ Members of the Council shall be appointed on the basis of their integrity, high degree of professionalism and having distinguished themselves as an authority in the promotion of children’s rights to responsible television programming and shall represent the following sectors, namely: academe, broadcast media, child development specialists, parents and child-focused non-government organizations duly registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and with membership preferably in all the cities and provinces throughout the country. The nominees shall be nominated by their respective organization and the Council for the Welfare of Children in consultation with the Advisory Committee. (Chanrobles, 1997)
Related Literature
A. Human Behavior
Human behavior is experienced throughout the entire lifetime of an individual. It includes the way they act based on different factors such as genetics, social norms, core faith, and attitude. Behaviour is impacted by certain traits each individual has. The traits vary from person to person and can produce different actions or behaviour from each person. Social norms also impact behaviour. Due to the inherently conformist nature of human society in general, humans are pressured into following certain rules and display certain behaviours in society, which conditions the way people behave. Different behaviours are deemed to be either acceptable or unacceptable in different societies and cultures. Core faith can be perceived through the religion and philosophy of that individual. It shapes the way a person thinks and this in turn results in different human behaviours. Attitude can be defined as the degree to which the person has a favorable or unfavorable evaluation of the behavior in question. Attitude of a person is essentially a reflexion of the behaviour he or she will portray in specific situations. Thus, human behavior is greatly influenced by the attitudes we use on a daily basis. (Anholt, 2010)
B. Television
Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium that is used for transmitting and receiving moving images and sound. Television can transmit images that are monochrome (black-and-white), in color, or in three dimensions. Television may also refer specifically to a television set, television program, or transmission. Television signals were initially distributed only as broadcast television or terrestrial television which is modeled on radio broadcasting systems. Terrestrial television uses high-powered radio-frequency transmitters to broadcast the television signal to individual television receivers. In addition to the original terrestrial transmission method, television signals are also distributed by co-axial cable or optical fibre, satellite systems and over the Internet. Television signals were transmitted as analog signals but soon countries started switching to digital signals, with the transition expected to be completed worldwide by late 2010s. A standard television set is composed of multiple internal electronic circuits, including circuits for receiving and decoding broadcast signals. A visual display device which lacks a tuner is properly called a video monitor rather than a television. (Shiers, 1997)
C. House-Tree-Person Drawing Test
The House-Tree-Person (H-T-P) projective technique developed by John Buck was originally an outgrowth of the Goodenough scale utilized to assess intellectual functioning. Buck felt artistic creativity represented a stream of personality characteristics that flowed onto graphic art. He believed that through drawings, subjects objectified unconscious difficulties by sketching the inner image of primary process. Since it was assumed that the content and quality of the H-T-P was not attributable to the stimulus itself, he believed it had to be rooted in the basic personality of an individual. Since the H-T-P was an outcropping of an intelligence test, Buck developed a quantitative scoring system to appraise gross classification levels of intelligence along with at qualitative interpretive analysis to appraise global personality characteristics. (Niolon, 2003)

Related Studies
A. Parental Guidance in Preschoolers’ Understanding of Spatial-Graphic Representations
This research was designed to observe whether parents guide their children’s understanding of spatial-graphic representations and, if so, to describe the quality of the strategies they use. Parents read a picture book to their preschoolers (3 or 5 years, N=31) and children completed spatial-graphic comprehension tasks. Observational data revealed a range of creative behaviors used to address the book’s spatial-graphic challenges. The incidence and quality of parental spatial-graphic behaviors were significantly related to 5-year-old children’s performance on spatial-graphic measures. These findings, as well as the paucity of parent attention to aesthetics or graphic production techniques, are discussed in relation to representational development and educational practice. (Szechter, 2004)

B. Effects of Contingent Television on Physical Activity and Television Viewing in Obese Children
Elevated television (TV) viewing and physical inactivity promote obesity in children. Thus, changes in physical activity and sedentary behavior seem critical to treating childhood obesity. Using a randomized, 2-arm design, this pilot study tested the effects of contingent TV on physical activity and TV viewing in 10 obese children. TV viewing was contingent on pedaling a stationary cycle ergometer for experimental participants but was not contingent on pedaling for control participants. The study was conducted over 12 weeks, including a 2-week baseline period. Multivariate analyses indicated that the intervention significantly increased pedaling and reduced TV-viewing time. During the treatment phase, the experimental group pedaled 64.4 minutes per week on average, compared with 8.3 minutes by controls. The experimental group watched 1.6 hours of TV per week on average, compared with 21.0 hours per week on average by controls during this phase. Secondary analyses indicated that the experimental group showed significantly greater reductions in total body fat and percent leg fat. Total pedaling time during intervention correlated with greater reductions in percent body fat (r = ‘0.68). (Allison, 2010)

C. American Academy of Pediatrics: Children, Adolescents, and Television
This statement describes the possible negative health effects of television viewing on children and adolescents, such as violent or aggressive behavior, substance use, sexual activity, obesity, poor body image, and decreased school performance. In addition to the television ratings system and the v-chip (electronic device to block programming), media education is an effective approach to mitigating these potential problems. The American Academy of Pediatrics offers a list of recommendations on this issue for pediatricians and for parents, the federal government, and the entertainment industry. (Pietrobelli, 2007)

D. The Effects of Television Form and Violent Content On Boys’ Attention And Social Behavior
An experiment is reported that examined the independent effects of television content (violence) and television formal features (action level) on children’s attention to programs and their postviewing social behavior. Pairs of preschool boys participated in two experimental sessions in which they saw animated and liver television programs that varied in violent content (high or low) and formal features (high or low action level). They then played with toys that contained cues for either aggressive or prosocial interaction. Rapid character action facilitated visual attention to the programs; violent television content did not facilitate attention. On measures of social behavior, strong effects of toy cues were found independently of television treatment effects. Aggressive toys produced aggressive behavior, and prosocial toys produced prosocial behavior; these patterns included some nonspecific, generalized influences in addition to direct demands of the play materials. Violent television content led to changes in subjects’ style of interaction and was also associated with increases in some prosocial behaviors. Television action level had no systematic effects on subjects’ behavior. Results are discussed within the theoretical frameworks of observational learning and general arousal. Implications for children’s television programming are also discussed. (Gallagher, 2005)

E. The Effects of Television Violence on Antisocial Behavior: A Meta-Analysis.
A meta-analysis is performed on studies pertaining to the effect of television violence on aggressive behavior. Partitioning by research design, viewer attributes, treatment and exposure variables, and type of antisocial behavior, allows one to interpret computed effect sizes for each of the variables in the partitions. We find a positive and significant correlation between television violence and aggressive behavior, albeit to varying degrees depending on the particular research question. According to research design, we find Z values ranging from .19 for survey to .40 for laboratory experiments. Erotica emerges as a strong factor even when it is not accompanied by portrayal of violence. Additionally, the effect of television violence on the antisocial behavior of boys and girls is found to be marginally equal in surveys. A host of tests are performed to solidify these, and further results. Substantive interpretation is provided as well. (Berman, 2002)

F. Television And The American Child
Intended to emphasize that, in many aspects, the evidence from the social and behavioral sciences on television and children is particularly pertinent to American children. Fewer than 5% of the 230 empirical studies of the effects of exposure to antisocial or prosocial television portrayals encompassed in a meta-analysis were done outside the US. The television that enters into the paradigm, then, has been American television, just as the persons under scrutiny have been American. There is thus a control for cultural differentiation, imposed by the sites of inquiry, that makes the available data particularly pertinent and interpretable. (Epstein, 2012)

G. Television Link to Behaviour Problems in Young Children.
The fifteen per cent of five-year-olds who spend at least three hours in front of the television each day are at a slightly higher risk of anti-social behaviour by the age of seven, Glasgow University researchers found. In contrast there was no noticeable impact of computer or other video games on behaviour, although children generally spent less time playing games than watching television. At the age of five, almost two thirds of children watched television for between one and three hours per day, with 15 per cent watching more and fewer than two per cent not watching television at all. Those who watched more than three hours’ television per day were 1.3 per cent more likely to have behavioural problems such as stealing or fighting by the age of seven than those who watch television for less than an hour per day. (cont. APENDIX B)
H. Parental Guidance Key Concept in Child Development
New research suggests the traditional model of nature (genetics) and nuture (environment) as primary factors in childhood development should emphasize the importance of parental guidance. The new wrinkle in child development theory holds that the way a child turns out can be determined in large part by the day-to-day decisions made by the parents who guide that child’s growth. Parental guidance is key. Child development researchers largely have ignored the importance of parental ‘guidance,’ In this model, effective parents observe, recognize and assess their child’s individual genetic characteristics, then cultivate their child’s strengths. In decades past, researchers have studied many aspects of parenting that the researcher described as ‘unidimensional’ and easier to quantify than guidance. Examples include how parents reinforce their children’s behavior, punish their children or show them love and warmth. Only in the last decade have researchers studied the role parents play in helping or hindering their child’s progress toward ‘ or abandonment of ‘ a particular course of development. The time has come, however, to understand the impact of parental guidance. Sophisticated statistical procedures now allow new research techniques such as growth-curve modeling and group-based trajectory analysis. Other child development experts have ventured into the interaction between child and parent trajectories. (Holden, 2004)

I. Early Exposure to TV Violence Predicts Aggression in Adulthood
This study is a follow-up of the 3-year longitudinal study conducted by Huesmann and his colleagues in 1977. In the original study, which included 557 children from five countries (aged 6-10 years), researchers gathered information on childhood TV-violence viewing, identification with aggressive TV characters, judgments of realism of TV violence, aggressive behavior, and intellectual ability, as well as parents’ socioeconomic status (measured by educational level), aggressiveness, parenting practices and attitudes, and parent’s TV. The results of this study revealed that early childhood exposure to TV violence predicted aggressive behavior for both males and females in adulthood. Gender differences were also observed in the expression of aggression. Specifically, men were more likely to engage in serious physical aggression and criminality, whereas women were more likely to engage in forms of indirect aggression. The longitudinal relationships observed in this study held true, even after controlling for the effects of early aggressive behavior in childhood, socioeconomic status, intellectual ability, and various parenting factors. These findings support the hypothesis that the causal effects of media violence exposure found in laboratory settings can be generalized to real life from childhood to adulthood. (George, 2000) [cont. APPENDIX C]

CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY
Research Design
The research design to be used for the study is the Case Study design. The researcher will observe a preschooler for the test experiment. The preschooler will be asked to watch Two Wives for one week. The evaluation of the behavioral effects of the given program to the preschooler will be done by giving the preschooler a psychological drawing test, House-Tree-Person Drawing Test.
Subject
The researcher will use (1) a selected preschooler as a participant for the experimentation of the test procedures, (2) selected program episodes from ABS ‘ CBN television program: Two Wives.
Procedure

I. Preparation
The preschooler will be asked to Two Wives daily for two weeks. The researcher will observe the participant during the given time frame.
II. Permission
The researcher will ask the parents of the preschooler for the permission on pursuing the research study.
III. Materials
Cable television and coloring and art materials will be necessary for the preschooler to use for the study to be conducted by the researcher.
IV. Testing
The researcher used a preschooler as a participant of the study. The participant was asked to watch Two Wives for a week containing 5 consecutive episodes: 64 – 68. Scenes from the selected episodes are categorized and the present themes were determined in each episode. After the viewing of the visual aid to the participant, the participant was asked specific questions regarding to the scenes of Two Wives in which he has to answer and to respond.
Questions will be asked and the appropriate answers were compared to the responses of the participant after the participant watched the episodes,. The following questions will be asked in Filipino so that the participant would understand the question. The responses were stated by the participant in Filipino in which the researcher has to translate in English
After the viewing and the interview of the researcher to the participant will be done, the participant will be asked to draw a house, tree and person. The researcher will use the House-Tree-Person (H-T-P) Drawing Test to recognize the behavioral and psychological effects of the television program to his participant. While the participant creates the outputs, the researcher will recall the scenes from selected Two Wives episodes. The outputs of the participant will be collected to be the test subjects. Data will be evaluated accordingly to the interpretations of the H-T-P Behavioral-Psychological Drawing Test.

V. Collection of data
The researcher will obtain the given outputs from the preschooler. The researcher will also asked questions to the participant regarding the scenes to be viewed by the participant.
VI. Interpretation of data
Data are going to be interpreted based on the behavioral interpretation of the House-Tree-Person Drawing Test. The response of the participant to the questions will be related to the interpretations of the drawings to determine the behavioral effects of watching Two Wives to preschoolers disregarding parental guidance.

CHAPTER 4
ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

Presentation of Data
The researcher used a preschooler as a participant of the study. The participant was asked to watch Two Wives for a week containing 5 consecutive episodes: 64 – 68. Scenes from the selected episodes are categorized and the present themes were determined in each episode. After the viewing of the visual aid to the participant, the participant was asked specific questions regarding to the scenes of Two Wives in which he has to answer and to respond. The following data are tabulated as follows:

EPISODE
SCENES
PRESENT THEMES

64
Victor is a tad annoyed, sends the question back to him – can he let Janine go? Victor tells Yvonne that her actions are creating a disturbance to him and Janine.
“Put yourself in my place! Can you just leave after seeing your child?”
“Let her go if you really love her. This will be good for all of us.”

– Language

65 Janine looks ready to pounce. And the infamous SLAP looks ready to fall, only to be intercepted.
“Cool it and just wait. If you do that, then maybe I’ll take pity on you and return Albert to you.”
Losing battle for Janine but she is not admitting defeat, “Do you know who Albert is meeting now? It’s Victor.” – Violence
– Intense

66 Victor is relieved that Yvonne stuck by him. He was worried that she might turn to Albert again. Yvonne promises that no such thing will happen again. She’s really done with Albert and she will love Victor like how he loves her. Victor asks why she isn’t wearing his ring. She tells him she’ll wear it only when Albert is completely out of her life. This is the respect she should accord Victor and to their love. – Affair
– Language

67 Janine means what she says as she delivers her first phase of destruction plan. She tells Victor that he divorced because Janine, ex found out about his relationship with her. Being a woman of strong pride, it must have been tough for Yvonne to deal with his sarcasm and bitterness. Victor is mildly surprised but clearly doesn’t want to hear more, he reminds Yvonne that things ended three years ago. Janine asks what if Janine doesn’t think it’s over.
– Destruction plan
– Affair
– Pride
– Bitterness
– Profanity

68
Victor is home to Yvonne’s house. He hasn’t had an idea yet to what is happening around him due to his Amnesia. The only thing he knows is that he really loves his ex-wife, Yvonne and doesn’t have an idea about Yvonne and his marriage. Victor slowly walks towards Yvonne. Yvonne is startled and she starts to feel guilty over what Victor might do to him. As Victor comes by, he slowly lifts up her chin and softly massages her lips with a tender kiss. After a while, Victor gets wilder and wilder while Yvonne gets guiltier as they both undress to the pleasurable sensations they feel.

– Sex

Table 4.1
This table shows the breakdown of highlighted scenes the preschooler participant has watched during the viewing of the programs. It has also indicated the themes presented from the scenes of a particular Two Wives episode.
After the participant has watched the episodes, questions were asked and the appropriate answers were compared to the responses of the participant. The following questions are asked in Filipino so that the participant would understand the question. The responses were stated by the participant in Filipino in which the researcher has to translate in English.
QUESTIONS ANSWER RESPONSE OF THE PARTICIPANT
Why was Victor annoyed to what was happening? Victor tells him that his actions are creating a disturbance to him and Janine. ‘kasi nanggugulo si Yvonne para makita yung anak niya’.
– Because Yvonne causes trouble just to see his son’
Why did Janine want to slap Yvonne? She can’t admit defeat. ‘kasi nagagalit siya kay Yvonne’
– Because she is in rage with Yvonne.
Why is Victor worried that Yvonne will turn to Albert again? Albert loves Yvonne and Victor is afraid that she will fall for Albert. ‘kasi meron siyang kabit, tapos may umaagaw sa dati niyang asawa’
– Because he once had an affair, and someone else love his wife.
Why did Janine prepare a destruction plan for Victor and Yvonne? Janine became Victor’s legal wife. But he started to love Yvonne again since he got Amnesia. ‘kasi nagseselos siya’
– Because she is jealous.
Do you know what action they are doing? (Ep. 68) No. (The preschooler should not know sex at a very early age) ‘Oo. laging may ganyan diyan diba’?
– Yes, such scenes are often shown there, right?
Table 4.2
The table presents the questions, appropriate answers and the response of the participant towards the questions about the scenes and themes shown in the selected episodes.
After the viewing and the interview of the researcher to the participant, the participant was asked to draw a house, tree and person. The researcher used the House-Tree-Person (H-T-P) Drawing Test to recognize the behavioral and psychological effects of the television program to his participant. While the participant was creating the outputs, the researcher recalls the scenes from selected Two Wives episodes. The outputs of the participant are collected to be the test subjects. Data are evaluated accordingly to the interpretations of the H-T-P Behavioral-Psychological Drawing Test.

FIGURE PARTS DESCRIPTION INTERPRETATION

HOUSE

House (Size)
Big House means the person is overwhelmed by his family

Walls
Strong Strong lines mean the need to fortify boundaries or problems with anxiety.

Roof
Triangle,
Not detailed Incomplete roof means evading formidable ideas.
Windows, doors and sidewalks
Included Openness to interacting with other people.

bushes, shades, shutters, bars and curtains

Excluded Discern the inclusion of bushes, shades, shutters, bars and curtains, which indicate a hesitation of a person to open himself to others.

TREE

Trunk (Size)
Large, Whole
Large trunk means a larger ego.
Split in half, which indicates a split personality.
Limbs Excluded No interpetation
Leaves Included Drawing leaves represents successfully connecting with others
Roots Normal Normal roots represent a grounded person.

PERSON

Arms (Position)
Open Open arms represent an inclination to connect with others.
Hands (Position) Balled Pointed fingers and balled fists represent hostility, while hidden or gloved hands mean antisocial tendencies.
Legs and Feet Small Note the details of the legs and feet: figures cut off at the bottom of the paper represent powerlessness, while both large and small feet mean the need for greater stability.
Mouth Large Determine the details of the mouth: an open or large mouth represents dependence, a closed mouth means rejection of needs and a slash mouth or teeth indicate verbal hostility
Table 4.3
The table shows the interpretation of parts of the figures corresponding the behavioral and psychological effects of the television program to the participant.

Analysis and Interpretation of Data
After the analysis and tabulation of data acquired from the observations of the researcher to the participant and interpretations of House-Tree-Person Drawing Test, the researcher has determined the effects of viewing Two Wives to the behavioral aspects and factors such as (1) Social Health and (2) Cognitive Impact to the preschooler participant disregarding his parental care.

BEHAVIORAL
FACTORS
TWO WIVES HOUSE-TREE-PERSON DRAWING TEST INTERPRETATION

Social Health
– The participant was able to recognize complex conflicts such as the scene that Yvonne causes disturbance in order to see her son and other scenes that require thinking that is above average than what a preschooler can think of.

– The interpretation of drawing leaves in the tree represents successfully connecting with others. The participant successfully connects himself to the characters in the scenes that is why he was able to determine such conflicts.

Cognitive Impact
– Actions and words not suitable for the age of a preschooler are learnt from what they viewed and heard such as sexual actions and behaviours and profanity. – The interpretation of drawing large mouth in the person represents dependence and verbal hostility. The participant is dependent on his environment; therefore, he learns to adapt what he sees and hears from his surroundings, especially the Television Media due to technological advancements.
Table 4.4
This figure represents the connection of the House-Tree-Person Drawing test to the behavioral factors affected by watching Two Wives without parental guidance.
CHAPTER 5
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECCOMENDATIONS

Summary
This study was conducted to determine the behavioral effects of watching Two Wives to preschoolers by using the House-Tree-Person Psychological Drawing Test.
The researcher used the Case Study Design for convenience of the observation of the participant and the testing. The preschooler was asked to watch Two Wives for a week consisting of five sequential episodes. The evaluation of the behavioral effects of the given program to the preschooler was done by giving the preschooler a psychological drawing test while asking the participant questions based from the scenes of the particular ABS ‘ CBN Primetime television program. Data are collected by the researcher and analyzed the behavioral interpretation accordingly to House-Tree-Person Psychological Drawing Test.

Conclusions
Based on the process, methods and findings of this study, the following conclusions are drawn:
1. Based on the observation of the researcher to the research participant, the mannerisms and the manner of speaking were highly affected by the themes shown from Two Wives.
2. The researcher concludes that the play time of the participant was not affected.
3. The attachment of the participant to his parents was affected by the changes of his mood towards the scenes that was acted in the said television program.
4. Children watching programs not suitable for their age bracket makes them think in a more of that of an adult than of that of a child.
5. The House-Tree-Person Drawing test states that the ego of the participant was significantly high.
Recommendations
Future researchers who will conduct a study with the same concepts involved in the research study are highly recommended to (1) allocate spare time to the experimentation, (2) use more number of participants, (3) set a control group and experimental group of participants for more credible and accurate results.
1. The time the researched have allocated the study was two weeks; therefore, the study will be more efficient and credible if time would be extended.
2. The researcher only used one participant for the study; the number of participants would highly affect the results of the study to be conducted by future researchers so having a higher number of participants is highly recommended.
3. The researcher used the participant as an experimental variable; future researchers are highly recommended to have both experimental and control group for comparison and contrast of the data and results.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
A. Books
1. Levine, L., & Munsch, J. (2010). Child Development: An Active Learning Approach: An Active Learning Approach By Laura E. Levine, Joyce Munsch (pp. 346-349).
2. Shiers, George and May (1997), Early Television: A Bibliographic Guide to 1940. Taylor & Francis, pp. 13, 22. ISBN 978-0-8240-7782-2.2. Gripaldo R. (2005). Filipino Cultural Traits. The Council for Research in Values and Philosophy. Washington DC, USA.
3. Anning, A. (2004). Early childhood education: Television and environment (pp. 100-104). London: SAGE.
4. Clifford, B., & Gunter, B. (1995). Television and Children: Program Evaluation, Comprehension, and Impact (p. 217).
5. Reynolds, C. (2007). Handbook of Psychological and Educational Assessment of Children (pp. 167-169).
B. Electronic Media
6. Lule, J. (2003, January 8). Understanding Media and Culture: An Introduction to
Mass Communication. Retrieved January 19, 2015, from http://catalog.flatworldknowledge.com/bookhub/reader/3833?e=lulemedia_1.0-ch02_s02 8.
C. Legal Document
7. The Republic Act No. 8370: Children’s Television Act Of 1997 (1997)

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