THE PROBLEM AND REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter includes the background of the study, review of related literature, theoretical framework, conceptual framework, statement of the problem, scope and limitations and significance of the study.
Background of the Study
Academic library is a library that is an integral part of a college, university, or other institution of postsecondary education, administered to meet the information and research needs of its students, faculty, and staff (ODLIS, 2014). Academic libraries’ main function is to support their parent institution in carrying out its mission and vision as well as in achieving their institutional objectives. Academic libraries are involved in providing support for research and educational activities in universities, institutions, and other academic organizations (Kumar, 2014).
As people need change, so do academic libraries. Change can be mirrored in the collections made available to patrons, the learning materials kept at the library, or the academic offerings made available at the library. In the 21st century, libraries are encouraged to embrace the call of “going green”.
The society depends on the resources of the Earth for survival and it’s their obligation to keep the Earth’s resources well protected and preserved. ‘Sustainable living’ which is defined as the ability of living a life that makes as little undesirable effect on the environment as possible, is the primary goal of ‘going green’. Living a life that guards, conserves, and replaces Earth’s resources is a green lifestyle. Libraries have a vital role in green living (Miller, 2010).
The need to ‘go green’ is not a new concept. As the concept of ‘global warming’ became popular in the news and media, the concept of ‘going green’ has also increased its popularity. People are beginning to realize that every decision they make with their lives can affect the environment. ‘Global warming’ is the continuous increase in the average temperature of the atmosphere of the Earth due to the ‘trapping of greenhouse gases’.
The idea of ‘going green’ is to decrease the totality of greenhouse gases that are trapped in the atmosphere and to advocate the conservation and preservation of the Earth. ‘Going green’ is an effort to save and protect our planet Earth by making right decisions for its condition and betterment. Some of the green programs that La Salle University Library has already implemented as observed by the researchers are the following: scheduled turning on/off of the air conditioning systems, the use of fans, the clean as you go (CLAYGO) policy, and the turning off of lights when not in use. Furthermore, this paper shows the extent of adaptation of La Salle University Library towards green library.
Review of Related Literature
This review consists of books, articles, documents that focus on the same subject matter or other concepts of the study..
Throughout this paper, the term ‘green’ is used and need to be defined. In the Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary (2004) the term ‘green’ is defined as ‘concerned with, or supporting environmentalism.’ Mulford (2010) defined ‘going green’ as a conscious process of decision-making, where you opt for greener solutions among the options available to you.
According to Roodman and Lenssen (1995), green or sustainable libraries are structures that are created, built, renewed, managed, or reused in an environmental and resource efficient manner. Green libraries are constructed to achievevarious purposes like protecting human health, using water and energy efficiently and making the total impact to the environment less. The terms sustainability and green are usually interchangeable with each other. Furthermore, being green is part of being sustainable, but sustainability is much broader, larger and more general concept than being green (McBane et al, 2010).
Miller (2010) emphasized that going green is not just only about recycling things but it also talks about how to increase the environmental awareness of the community as well as educating them to live in a more environmental-friendly way. The library is a significant element in connecting the people with the information, knowledge and tools they need to go green’to change their habits and make the minimum impact possible on the Earth’s limited resources.
Ephraim (2003) discussed in his article that sustainability in academic libraries consists of all features of institutional and legal information requirements which is beneficial to students today and the next generations.
Antonelli (2008) stated in her article that green libraries are approaching a tipping point creating a true green library movement which aims to not only save energy and money, but approach solutions from a comprehensive standpoint, including avoiding toxic chemical cleaning products which can trigger asthma attacks, developing recycling programs beyond the library into the community or campus, providing more environmental resources, offering local expert panel discussions and talks, creating sustainability book clubs and fairs, and even in a few instances continuing education courses and workshops on eco-librarianship. Furthermore, reducing, reusing, and recycling paper tends to be the first order of business when a library goes green and these small steps can be the beginning of something much larger (Urbanska, 2010).
Green library movement embraced the idea of sustainability. Green Library is that which recycles, protects the environment, shows green values, and sustainability, has been designed ecologically sustainable and offer public place which is free for the community (Helsinki City Library, 2013).
Rowley (2006) stated in her article that libraries have an essential recycling role through the borrowing of books, magazines, newspapers, journals, audio-visual and other library resources; it means that people can share their materials to others. The library can also provide a place for communities where they could meet and engage in sustainability projects.
There are also articles about energy savings in the library. It is important to notice that computers are not just those things that could be switched off in the end of the work day because air conditioning and lighting affect energy usage too. However, it is important to keep the quality of the preservation environment if mechanical systems are switched off during vacant hours (Linden et al, 2012).
LaRue (1991) stated in his article that putting solar panels, cutting back water use in restrooms, retrofitting older and inefficient lighting, and adding occupancy sensors for lighting controls can make the library building greener. People think that the costs of the library facility operations are all about their construction. That is not true because the cost is in the operations.
Brown (2003) described in his article that libraries are on the leading edge of green design. Well-designed green buildings require less cost to function and manage than ordinary constructed buildings. Green buildings use fewer energy and natural resources. They are more comfy, enjoy more daylight, and are more appealing to people. They are also more likely to increase productivity and less likely to affect health problems. He also stated in his article that there are two indications of current green design which are the natural daylight and natural ventilation but because of the recent invention of artificial lighting and mechanical heating and cooling systems, the need to design for daylighting and natural ventilation was reduced. A good indoor environment was documented to have a positive effect on productivity, learning, mood, comfort, human performance, employee retention and health. Indoor air quality management plans, use of low-emitting materials, increased ventilation effectiveness, indoor chemical and pollutant source control, CO2 monitoring, thermal comfort, available daylight and views and controllable heating and cooling systems are ways for buildings to be greener (Brown, 2003).
Neale (2008) recommended purchasing paper with a high percentage of recycled content when it comes to printing and writing. It is important for humans to realize that recycling affects everyone, even average home owners. Many Americans may not think of their houses as a place of danger, however, things such as old paint cans in basements can prove to be hazardous waste. In order for society to continue to function, individuals must adapt to the demands of the environment by recycling objects that be reused in one way or another.
Fialkoff (2008) expressed in her article that libraries constantly face problems on their budgets and by going green, they do not only lessen their impact to the environment but also they can cut the expenses connected to the heating and cooling systems. In San Francisco, libraries were retrofitted and redesigned that is why out of 27 branches, only one needs air conditioning.
Trotter (2008) suggested in her article that libraries should use natural light instead of fluorescent lights to make the libraries a little greener. She also suggested the use of green cleaning products in the library to promote a healthier working environment not just to the library personnel and staff but also to the library patrons who goes in and out of the library.
Huttunen (2011) stated that environmentally friendly daily routines in libraries could be separating all the waste, turning on and off of lights, less than 21” C room temperature, avoiding standby state of the computers during the night, printing only when needed, preferring double-sided printing and two pages at the same sheet, preferring washable towels instead of tissues and putting tissues into organic waste trashcan when it is possible.
Green library buildings usually come to the minds of the librarians when they talk about green libraries. Green buildings are measured according to a rating system like the LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certification system, which was developed by the U.S. Green Building Council. When LEED was introduced in 2000, it became the U.S. national standard for institutional and commercial buildings (U.S. Green, 2008).
McBane (2010) defined LEEDGreen Building Rating System as an organization that strengthens and boosts global adoption of sustainable green building and development practices through the establishment and application of universally understood and accepted tools and performance criteria.
According to U.S. Green Building Council (2008), LEED is a point-based system in which projects earn LEED points for meeting green building criteria. There aresixcredit categories for new building construction which are sustainable sites, water efficiency, energy and atmosphere, materials and resources, indoor environmental quality, and innovation in design.
The LEED rating system has four levels of certification: Certified, Silver, Gold and Platinum.Each certification level has 32 categories of environmental design and energy concerns for a maximum point value of 69. To qualify for certification, buildings must score a minimum number of points above ‘standard building’ performance levels. For example, a basic LEED-NC certified building must score at least 26 points in the six credit categories. To certify for a Silver rating, a building should have 33 points, for Gold 39 points, and for Platinum rating, a minimum of 52 points (Yudelson, 2007).
Barrington (2008) explained that Platinum certification is difficult to achieve. In the U.S., there are currently two (2) LEED-certified Platinum library buildings: the William J. Clinton Presidential Library in Little Rock, Arkansas, and the Lake View Terrace Branch Library, part of the Los Angeles Public Library District.
The Clinton Presidential Library originally received Silver Certification under the USGBC’s LEED-NC program. In 2007, the Library achieved LEED-EB Platinum certification by putting additional green cleaning and recycling programs, water-wise landscaping and a green roof, climate-neutral and energy efficiency strategies (Pilloton, 2007). Lake View Terrace Branch Library was certified as Platinum in 2003. Natural daylighting, solar panels, shading to filter direct sunlight, bamboo wood flooring and sensors that control indoor lighting to save energy are the library’s green features (Los Angeles Public, 2005).
Materials and Resources
The Materials and Resources (MR) concentrate on the continuous flow of products being purchased and discarded to supporttheoperationsof the building (U.S. Green Building Council, 2016).
Killough (2014) stated that using more green materials including renewable materials, salvaged materials, recycled and recyclable materials, and natural materials are good for the building occupants and the environment. Recyclable materials include mixed paper (which includes white and colored papers, forms, envelopes, tablets, file folders, junk mail, wrapping paper, catalogs, cereal boxes, magazines and phone books and photos), corrugated cardboard (any fluted sheet between one or more inner and outer lining), plastics, metals and glass. Buildings should take properactions for the safe collection, storage and disposal of electronic waste such as office equipment (monitors, computers, printers, copiers, scanners, and fax machines), televisions,external power adaptersand other audiovisual equipment (U.S. Green Building Council, 2012).
Kurbanoglu (2014) stated that the use of sustainable materials and resources can make the building greener. Sustainable materials and resources include the use of building materials, furnishings, and fixtures with recycled content; use of refurbished materials and products; and use of products (furniture, consumables and building materials) made from natural materials.
Sahni (2009) stated in his article that a practical way to reduce project costs and minimize harm to the environment is to use native and recycled material as much as possible. Other strategies include reusing materials such as bricks, concrete and wood; turning construction waste to recycling plants instead of landfills and using recyclables like paper, aluminum, plasticandglass.
Webb (2000) explained that people have a good number of strategies for preventing damage in the library collections. Librarians need to reduce the temperature and humidity levels to slow down the deterioration of library materials. They also need to filter out air pollutants and control the exposure of library materials to light and UV. Librarians already know how to store, package, and handle collections. They also know how to train staff and users to do what they can to protect the materials and resources of the library. Librarians are aware that they need pest control programs and disaster plans. National and international campaigns were developed to eliminate the use of unstable materials such as highly acidic papers in publishing and cellulose acetate film in record photography. Good microfilming techniques and standards were also developed which allow people to make reliable and long-lasting copies of unstable material or items in high demand (Webb, 2000).
Indoor Environmental Quality
Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) covers the conditions inside a building which includes air quality, lighting, thermal conditions, ergonomics and their effects on occupants or residents. Strategies for dealing with IEQ include those that improve quality of life,protect human health, and reduce stress and potential injuries. Better indoor environmental quality can reduce liability for building owners and enhance the lives of building occupants (U.S. Green Building Council, 2014).
U.S. Green Building Council (2014) revealed the common sources of indoor air contaminants which includes building materials (such as coatings, paints, sealants, adhesives, and furniture that may release volatile organic compounds; substances that vaporize at room temperature that can cause health problems); combustion processes in Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) equipment; mold resulting from moisture in building materials; cleaning materials; pollutants from occupants’ shoes; and occupants’ respiration (which increases carbon dioxide levels and may introduce germs). U.S. Green Building Council (2014) suggested some strategies to improve the occupants’ comfort and control: use daylighting, install operable windows, give occupants lighting control, give occupants temperature and ventilation control, include suitable acoustic design,provide ergonomic furniture and conduct user surveys.
According to Bluyssen (2009), Indoor Environmental Quality does not consider psychological effects, individual and physical reasons such as age, diseases and degradation of human body parts as these are difficult to determine. Whereas, the environmental factors affecting IEQ such as Indoor Air Quality, thermal comfort, acoustic quality and lighting quality are the main considerations in order to identify and evaluate the IEQ of a particular place.
Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) is interconnected to users’ health and welfare. Health threats such as headache, respiratory problems, and allergies of eyes, nose and throat may happen when pollutants such as biological contaminants, chemicals and particles are present in the air(Kubba, 2012). IEQ of a building is achieved when the IAQ is satisfactory. IEQ is significant in ensuring the health of the building occupants (Yau et al, 2012). Spengler and Chen (2000) mentioned that IAQ is one of the common factorsthatinfluence the occupants’ health.
Thermal comfort is defined as astate of mind which expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment (Olesen and Parsons, 2002). It was identified that the thermal environment is in a satisfactory state when 80 percent of the building occupants were satisfied with the thermal conditions, (ASHRAE Standard, 1992). Parameters such as air flow humidity, and temperature, are being considered to recognize the thermal comfort level in specific place(ASHRAE Standard, 2004). There are 7 factors which affect the thermal comfort level and those are air temperature (”C), air pressure (Pa), air velocity (m/s), relative humidity (%), radiant temperature (”C), metabolism rate (met) as well as clothing (clo) of the occupants (Shaharon et al, 2012).
According to Kim and Haberl (2012), acoustic quality is studied to locate the sound or vibration isolation and the noise’s level from the background. Acoustic quality is unpleasant when the sound produces has been observed as horrible, distressing or frustrating. Genuit (1996) indicated thatunpleasant, frustrating or annoying sounds can affect the IEQ within certain places. Similarly, Codreanu (2013) stressed out that noise from vibrations, in or out of the building would affect the acoustic quality experienced by the users. Acoustic comfort is one of the physical needs for the users especially when they are in public buildings (Codreanu, 2013).
B”low-H”be (2008) revealed that lighting quality is influenced by factors like the window area. Bigger window area has a greater tendency to result a window in generating glare. Setting up blinds or curtains inside the building can help in attaining a glare free environment. B”low-H”be (2008) agreed that the building has a good IEQ when the building is glare free and when it achieved visual comfort among the building users. Codreanu (2013) showed that visual comfort is one of the criteria for the occupants to identify their comfort level in indoor environment and in achieving a good IEQ. Visual comfort is achieved when the luminance level (lux) is kept in good condition (Codreanu, 2013).
Innovation in Design
Sustainable design strategies and measures are continuouslydeveloping and improving. Innovation in Design recognizes projects for innovative building features and sustainable building practices and strategies (U.S. Green Building Council, 2016).
Antonelli (2008) stated that innovation can be realized by constructing green library buildings, by greening existing library facilities, by providing green library services and by embracing environmentally supportive and sustainable practices in the library.
According to Brown (2003) the following activities are incorporated in to green library design: a) community cooperation to continue public support; b) pairing naturallight with electrical lighting to cut down energy costs; c) using green and renewable materials like wood, cork, bamboo and linoleum;d) putting green roofs; e) encouraging natural ventilation by putting operable windows; f) using renewal energy; and g) maintaining indoor environmental quality.
Energy and Atmosphere
The Energy and Atmosphere (EA) approach energy from a holistic perspective, addressing energy use reduction, energy-efficient design strategies, and renewable energy sources (U.S. Green Building Council, 2016).
Library buildings should use daylight and natural ventilation to reduce energyconsumption. Lights and water tapsshould be reduced to conserve power and water.Windows must be placed on appropriateplaces, and they should focus on reducingnoise pollution created by Air Conditioning Systems, power generators, defective door by nonstopmanagement and maintenance.Using renewal energy systems have become popular. They are cost effective that can reduce Greenhouse effect in the natural environment.Libraries that are located in coastalareas can be better utilizing the wind powerto generate green energy (Chauhan, 2015).
Lloyd (2014) recommended that libraries should implement programs to reduce the energy which includes getting staff to turn off equipment when not in use; purchasing energy efficient equipment such as replacing old light fittings with LED light fittings which are more energy efficient; installing sensor lights; reducing the time of the air conditioning systems; and educating staff about how they can save energy in the library.
This study was anchored with the theory of green development by the United Nations Development Program. Green development theory means the promotion of extensive and harmonized development between humanity and nature, and between people, stable and equitable human development. The theory of green development was based on three concepts: first, the unity of nature and humanity found in conventional Chinese philosophy, which demands for mankind’s respect and harmony with nature to attain the mutual benefits of the nature and the humanity and uphold a green environment for human beings; second, the Marxist dialectics of nature, which have developed to evolve into modern materialist dialectics; and third, sustainable development, which has turned into the development concept of modern industrial civilization.
Green development, in significance, is the scientific viewpoint of development; it is ”people-oriented and represents the creation of a comprehensive, coordinated, and sustainable development concept to promote economic, social, and extensive human development. This theory is important in this study in such a way that it helps in explaining the significance of going green not just to LSU Library but also to the library personnel and staff, library patrons and the community. This theory also supports the study because it explains that every decision that humans make can directly affect the environment.
Below is the conceptual framework of the study. This schematic model shows the relationship of the variables in the study.
Figure1. Schematic Model of the Study
As shown in Figure 1, the extent of adaptation of LSU Library to the new concept of Green Library is measured in terms of its materials and resources, indoor environmental quality, innovation in design and energy and atmosphere. The result of this study will thenprovide developmental programs that LSU Library needs to do to completely adapt the concept of Green Library.
Statement of the Problem
This study is intended to provide an overview of going green and illustrate how La Salle University Library can use them as tools in teaching the library patrons about sustainability and foster behavior change.
Specifically, it answers the following questions:
1. What is the extent of adaptation of LSU Library to Green Library as observed by the respondents in terms of:
1.1. Materials and resources
1.2. Indoor environmental quality
1.3. Innovation in design
1.4. Energy and atmosphere
2. Based on the results, what development programs may be recommended in LSU Library?
Scope and Limitations
The study focuses on the greening of LSU Library in terms of the materials and resources, indoor environmental quality, innovation in design and energy and atmosphere. It will be limited to library personnel who are currently employed and library users (students who are currently enrolled and faculty who are currently employed at La Salle University in S.Y. 2016-2017).
Significance of the Study
This study will give a significant contribution to the following groups of people:
Administration. This study will give insights to the administrators as to what things or actions they need to do in the future to make La Salle University greener.
Librarians. This study will serve as a guide to the librarians as to what green developmental programs they could possibly implement to make their library greener.
Faculty and Staff. This study will help them understand the importance of being green not just to the library but also to humanity and to the environment.
Students. This study will give them appropriate understanding about the importance of greening the library not just to the library users but also to the environment.
Future Researchers. This study may be a useful tool for future researchers. This may serve as further reference for their study.